Day 48 of My Journey from 64 to 65 ProArgi9+ Scientific Research Concluded
HEALTH BENEFITS OF L-ARGININE – SCIENTIFIC RESEARCH INCLUDED
The following report highlights health benefits of increased L-arginine in the human body, backed by published research. L-arginine is a semi-essential amino acid produced in the liver and kidneys. It is found in protein-rich foods like red meat. In 1998 the Nobel Prize for medicine was awarded to three doctors who had discovered that Nitric Oxide was a vital signalling molecule in the cardiovascular system the pre-cursor to which is L-Arginine.
Yesterday we looked at the human metabolism and the musculoskeletal system. The final part of the research document looks at the nervous system, the reproductive system, skin and hair and safety of l-arginine.
As I have also mentioned this is based on research carried out by the people listed at the end of this article who are much more qualified than I am. My purpose is to research articles in my own quest for knowledge and there are thousands of them out there and give you the best information I can to encourage you to #lookharder, ask questions and know more about why ProArgi9+ probably the best food supplement available today anywhere in the world. The only l-arginine supplement known to produce the correct amount of Nitric Oxide over an extended period which is a great benefit to those that take ProArgi9+ on a daily basis. L-Arginine It is found in protein-rich foods like red meat. Medical research has now shown that supplementation with adequate amounts of L-arginine facilitates the following:
In the nervous system, L-arginine:
- may be useful for the treatment of Alzheimer’s Disease (due to its ability to repair damaged axons by increasing polyamines). (69)
- is essential for the regeneration of the damaged axons of neurons (its role appears to be as an agent for degrading proteins that have been damaged through axon injury). (70)
- facilitates the potentiation of long-term memory by stimulating nitric oxide production. (Acting as a neurotransmitter, NO is responsible for the potentiation of long-term memory). (71)
- improves memory and cognitive functions. (72)
- improves pituitary responsiveness and modulates hormonal control. (73)
In the reproductive system, L-arginine:
- alleviates male impotence (by stimulating nitric oxide production, the endogenous chemical that stimulates erections in males). (74)
- alleviates male infertility by improving sperm count and sperm motility (due to its involvement in the manufacture of endogenous spermidine). (75)
- enhances male and female libido. (76)
- enhances female sexual performance- due to its role in the production of nitric oxide in the clitoris. (77)
- improves male sexual performance by converting to nitric oxide, which is integral to the achievement of erections. L-arginine produces erections that are bigger, harder, and more frequent. It also increases male sexual endurance. (78)
- improves sperm count and sperm motility. (79)
- may improve prostate function. (80)
- deficiency can cause atrophy of the testicles.
Regarding skin and hair, L-arginine:
- deficiency can result in hair loss . (81)
- concentrates in the skin.
- increases the level of vascular endothelial growth factor in the skin (with topical application). (82)
- stimulates the proliferation of fibroblasts (skin cells). (83)
- is essential for, and accelerates the healing of wounds (by stimulating the release of HGH, stimulating the production of collagen and the proliferation of fibroblasts. (84)
- dramatically accelerates the healing of burns. (85)
- dramatically accelerates the healing of wounds in people who have undergone surgery. (86)
- decreases post operative infection and length of hospital stay. (86)(87)
- improves scleroderma. (88)
Safety with regard to safety, L-arginine:
- has been shown to be safe in the above studies as well as thousands of others. (89)
- has been used safely in humans for over 30 years.
- Radner, Wlk et al. Arginine reduces kidney collagen accumulation and N-epsilon-(carboxymethyl) lysine in the aging NMRO-mouse. J Gerontol. 49(2): M44-M46, 1994.
- Gianotti, L., Macario, M., Lanfranco, F., et al. Arginine counteracts the inhibitory effect of recombinant human insulin-like growth factor I on the somatotroph responsiveness to growth hormone-releasing hormone in humans. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2000 Oct; 85(10): 3604-8.
- Ceremuzynski, L., et al. Effect of supplemental oral arginine on exercise capacity in patients with stable angina pectoris. AM J Cardiol. 80:331-333, 1997.
- Adams, R., R., et al. Oral arginine improves endothelium-dependent dilatation and reduces monocyte adhesion to endothelial cells in young men with coronary artery disease. Atherosclerosis, 1 29(2): 261-269, 1997.
- Adams, M., R., et al. Cigarette smoking is associated with increased human monocyte adhesion to endothelial cells: reversibility with oral arginine but not vitamin C. Journal of the American College of Cardiology. 29(3): 491-497, 1997.
- Huk, I., et al. Arginine treatment alters the kinetics of nitric oxide and superoxide release and reduces ischemic/reperfusion injury in skeletal muscle. Circulation. 97:667-675, 1997.
- Drexler, H., et al. Correction of endothelial dysfunction in coronary microcirculation of hypercholesterolaemic patients by arginine. The Lancet. 338:1546-50, 1991.
- Huk, I., et al. Arginine treatment alters the kinetics of nitric oxide and superoxide release and reduces ischemia/reperfusion injury in skeletal muscle. Circulation. 97:667-675, 1997.
- Kolfman, B., et al. Improvement of cardiac performance by intravenous infusion of l-arginine in patients with moderate congestive heart failure. Journal of the American College of Cardiology. 26(5): 1251-6, 1995.
- Quyyumi, A. Does acute improvement of endothelial dysfunction in coronary artery disease improve myocardial ischemia? Journal of American College of Cardiology. 1998 Oct; 32(4): 904-11.
- Khosh, F. Natural approach to hypertension. Alternative Medicine Review. 6(6), 2001.
- Sisic, D., Francishetti, A., Frolich, E. Prolonged arginine on cardiovascular mass and myocardial hemodynamics and collagen in aged spontaneously hypertensive and normal rats. Hypertension 1999 Jan; 33(1 Pt 2): 451-5.
- Nakaki, T., et al. Arginine induced hypotension. Lancet. 1990 Oct 20; 336(8721): 1016-7.
- Nagaya, N., et al. Short-term oral administration of arginine improves hemodynamics and exercise capacity in patients with precapillary pulmonary hypertension. American Journal of Respiratory Critical Care Medicine. 163(4): 887-891, 2001.
- Roberts, A. et al. Nutraceuticals: The Complete Encyclopedia of Supplements, Herbs, Vitamins and Healing Foods. Berkely Publishing Group. New York, USA. 2001: 319.
- Maxwell, A., Anderson, B., Zapien, M., Cooke, J. Endothelial dysfunction in hypercholesterolemia is reversed by nutritional product designed to enhance nitric oxide activity. Cardiovascular Drugs Therapy. 2000 Jun; 14(3): 309-16.
- Maxwell, A., Anderson, B., Cooke, J. Nutritional therapy for peripheral artery disease. Vascular Medicine. 2000; 5(1): 11-19.
- Wallace, A., Ratcliffe, M., Galinez, D., Kong, J. Arginine infusion dilates coronary vasculature in patients undergoing coronary bypass surgery. Anesthesiology. 1999 Jun; 90(6): 1 577-8.
- Bode-Boger, S. Boger, R., et al. Differential inhibition of human platelet aggregation and thromboxane A 2 formation by arginine in vivo and in vitro. Arch Pharmacology. 1998; 357: 143-150.
- Le Yorneau, T., Van Belle, E., Corseaux, D., et al. Role of nitric oxide in re-stenosis after experimental balloon angioplasty in the hypercholesterolemic rabbit. Journal of American College of Cardiology. 1999 Mar; 33(3): 8876-82.
- Suematsu, Y., Ohtsuka, T., et al. Arginine given after ischemic preconditioning can enhance cardio protection in isolated rat hearts. European Journal of Cardiothoracic Surgery. 2001, Jun; 19(6): 873-9.
- Hambrecht, R., et al. Correction of endothelial dysfunction in chronic heart failure: additional effects of exercise training and oral arginine supplementation. Journal of American College of Cardiology. 2000 Mar 1; 35(3): 706-1 3.
- Bode-Boger, S., Boger, R., et al. Arginine induces nitric oxide-dependent vasodilation in patients with critical limb ischemia. A randomized, controlled study. Circulation. 1996 Jan 1; 93(1): 85-90.
- Miller, A., The pathogenesis, clinical implication, and treatment of intestinal hyperpermeability. Alternative Medicine Review. 2(5): 330-345, 1997.
- Segala, M. (editor). Disease Prevention and Treatment 3rd Life Extension Media. Florida, USA, 2000; 202.
- Sahin A., Atalik, K., Gunel, E., Dogan, N. Nonadrenergic, noncholinergic responses of the human colon smooth muscle and the role of K+ channels in these responses. Methods Find Ex Clin Pharmacol. 2001 Jan-Feb; 23(1): 13-7.
- Khattab, M., Gad, M., Abdallah, D. Protective role of nitric oxide in indomethacin-induced gastric ulceration by a mechanism independent of gastric acid secretion. Pharmacol Res. 2001 May; 43(5): 463-7.
- Thomas, S., Ramachandran A., Patra, S., et al. Nitric oxide protects the intestine from the damage induced by laparotomy and gut manipulation. Journal of Surg Res. 2001 Jul; 99(1): 25-32.
- Vallet, B. Microthrombosis in sepsis. Minerva Anesthesiol. 2001 Apr; 67(4): 298-301.
- Smith, S., et al. Improvement in interstitial cystitis symptoms scores during treatment with oral arginine. Journal of Urology. 158(3 Part 1): 703-708, 1997.
- Reckelhoff, J., et al. Long-term dietary supplementation with L-arginine prevents age-related reduction in renal function. American Journal of Physiology. 272 (6 Part 2): R1 768-R1 774, 1997.
- Field, C., et al. Glutamine and arginine: immunonutrients for improved health. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 32LSuppl) S377-88, 2000.
- Reynolds, J., et al. Immunologic effects of arginine supplementation in tumor-bearing and non-tumor-bearing hosts. Annals of Surgery. 211:202-209, 19.
- Cha-Chung, Y. Arrest of mammary tumor growth by L-arginine. Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications. 95:1306-1313, 1980.
- Weisburger, J. Prevention by arginine glutamate of the carcinogenicity of acetamide in rates. Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology. 14: 163-175, 1969.
- Rettura, G., et al. Supplemental arginine increases thymis cellularity in normal and murine sarcoma virus-inoculated mice and increases the resistance to murine sarcoma virus tumour. J Par Ent Nutr. 3: 409-416, 1979.
- Heys, D., et al. Dietary supplementation with L-arginine: Modulation of tumor infiltrating lymphocytes in patients with colorectal cancer. British Journal of Surgery. 1997 Feb; 84(2): 238-41.
- Kirk, S., et al. Arginine stimulates wound healing and immune function in elderly human beings. Surgery. 11 4(2): 155-159, 1993.
- Blechman, S., et al. L-arginine boosts the immune system. Muscular Development. 38(10): 72, 2001.
- Barbul, A., et al. Arginine stimulates lymphocyte immune response in health human beings. Surgery. 90: 224-251, 1981.
- Ochoa, J., et al. Effects of L-arginine on the proliferation of T lymphocyte subpopulations. Journal of Parenteral Enteral Nutrition. 25: 23-29, 2001.
- Moriguchi, S., et al. Functional changes in human lymphocytes and monocytes after in vitro incubation with arginine. Nutrition Research. 7: 719-729, 1987.
- Dean, W. The neuroendocrine theory of aging part IV: the immune homeostat. Vitamin Research News. October 1999.
- Efron, D., et al. Modulation of inflammation and immunity by arginine supplements. Curr Opin Clin Nutr Metab Care. 1: 531-538, 1998.
- Wilmore, D., The effect of glutamine supplementation in patients following elective surgery and accidental injury. Journal of Nutrition. 131 (9 Supplement): 2543S-2549S, 2001.
- Morric, C., Kuypers, F., et al. Patterns of arginine and nitric oxide in patients with sickle cell disease with vaso-occlusive crisis and acute chest syndrome. Journal of Ped Hemat/Onc. 2000 Nov-Dec; 22(6): 5-20.
- Braverman, E. The Healing Nutrients Within. Keats Publishing. New Canaan, Connecticut, USA. 1997: 221.
- Wascher, T., et al. Vascular effects of L-arginine: Anything beyond a substrate for NO synthase? Biochem Biophys Res Com. 234: 35-38, 1997.
- Rossitch, E., et al. L-arginine normalizes endothelial function in cerebral vessels from hypercholesterolemic rabbits. Journal of Clinical Investigation. 87 (4): 1295-299, 1991.
- Ryzenhov, V., et al. Action of arginine on the lipid and lipoprotein content in blood serum of animals. Voprosy Meditsinskoi Khimi. 30(6): 76-80, 1984.
- Radner, W., et al. L-arginine reduces kidney collagen accumulation and N-epsilon-(carboxymethyl) lysine in the aging NMRI-mouse. Journal of Gerontology. 49 (2): M44-M46, 1994.
- Piatti, P.m et al. Long-term oral L-arginine administration improves peripheral and hepatic insulin sensitivity in type 2 diabetic patients. Diabetes Care. 24(5): 875-880, 2001.
- Wascher, T., et al. Effects of low-dose L-arginine on insulin mediated vasodilation and insulin sensitivity. European Journal of Clinical Investigation. 27: 690-695, 1997.
- Giugliana, D., et al. Vascular effects of acute hyperglycemia are reversed by L-arginine. Circulation. 1997; 95 (7): 1783-90.
- Mohan, I., Cas, U. Effects of arginine-nitric oxide system on chemical induced diabetes mellitus. Free Radic Biol Mid. 1998 Nov 1; 25(7): 757-65.
- Arginine improves blood flow and exercise capacity. Life Enhancement. February 2002; 23-26.
- Beall, C., et al. Pulmonary nitric oxide in mountain dwellers. Nature. 414(6862): 411-412, 2001.
- De Gouw, H., Verbruggen, M., Twiss, I., Sterk, P. Effect of oral arginine on airway hyper-responsiveness to histamine in asthma. Thorax. 1999 Nov; 54(11): 1033-5.
- Moss, R., Cancer Therapy: The Independent Consumer’s Guide to Non-Toxic Treatment & Prevention. Equinox Press, Brooklyn, New York, USA. 1992; 285-287.
- Khedara, A., Kawai, Y., Kayashita, J., Kato, N. Feeding rats the nitric oxide synthase inhibitor, L-N(omega)nitroarginine, elevates serum triglycerides and cholesterol and lowers hepatic fatty acid oxidation. Journal of Nutrition. 1996 Oct; 126(10): 2563-7.
- Gianotti, L., Macario, M., Lanfranco, F, et al. Arginine counteracts the inhibitory effect of recombinant human insulin-like growth factor I on the somatotroph responsiveness to growth hormone-releasing hormone in humans. Journal of Clinicial Endocrinol Metab. 2000 Oct; 85(10): 3604-8.
- Ashish, D., et al. Nitric oxide modulates fracture healing. Journal of bone and Mineral Research. 1 5(2): 342-351, 2000.
- Barbul, A. Arginine: biochemistry, physiology, and therapeutic implications. Journal of Parent Ent Nutrition. 10: 227-228, 1986.
- Braverman, E. The Healing Nutrients Within. Keats Publishing, New Canaan, Connecticut, USA. 1997; 220.
- Visser, J., et al. L-arginine supplementation in the prevention and treatment of osteoporosis. Medical Hypotheses. 43(5): 339-342, 1994.
- L-arginine improves blood flow and exercise capacity. Life Enhancement. February 2002; 23-26.
- Stevens, B., Godfrey, M., Kaminski, T., Braith, R. High intensity dynamic human muscle performance enhanced by a metabolic intervention. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2000 Dec; 32(1 2): 2102-04.
- Bradley, S., Kingwell, B., McConell, G. Nitric oxide synthase inhibition reduces leg glucose uptake but not blood flow during dynamic exercise in humans. Diabetes. 1999 Sep; 48(9): 1815-21.
- Tarkowski, E., et al. Intrathecal release of nitric oxide in Alzheimer’s disease and vascular dementia. Dement Geriatr Cogn Disord. 2000 Nov-Dec 11 (6); 322-6.
- Cestaro, B. Effects of L-arginine, S-adenosytmethionine and polyamines on nerve regeneration. Acta-Neurol Scend Suppl. 154:32-41, 1994.
- Pautler, E. The possible role and treatment of deficient microcirculation regulation in age-associated memory impairment. Med Hypotheses. 1994 Jun; 42(6): 363-6.
- Pandhi, P., Balakrishnan, S. Cognitive dysfunction induced by phenytoin and valproate in rats: effect of nitric oxide. Indian Journal of Physiological Pharmacology. 1999 Jul; 43(3): 378-82.
- Di Luigi, L., Guidetti, L., Pigozzi, F., et al. Acute amino acid supplementation enhances pituitary responsiveness in athletes. Med Scio Sports Exerc. 1999 Dec; 31(12); 1748-54.
- Chen, J., et al. Effect of oral administration of high-dose nitric oxide donor L-arginine in men with organic erectile dysfunction: results of a double blind, randomized, placebo-controlled study. British Journal of Urology. 83: 269-273, 1999.
- Papp, G., et al. [The role of arginine and arginase activity in fertility]. Andrologia. 11:37-41, 1979.
- Women and sex drive. Life Enhancement. December 1999.
- Block, W. Sexual enhancement available to women too. Viagra duality: better to NO? Life Enhancement. July 1998; 15-18.
- Chen, J., Wollman, Y., Chernichovsky, T., et al. Effect of high dose nitric oxide donor arginine in men with organic erectile dysfunction. BJU Int . 1999 Feb; 83(3): 269-73.
- Keller, D., et al. Arginine stimulation of human sperm motility in vitro. Biol Reprod. 13: 154-157, 1975.
- Aikawa, K., Yokota, T., et al. Endogenous nitric oxide-mediated relaxation and nitrinergic innervation in the rabbit prostate: the change with aging. Prostate. 2001 Jun 15; 48(1): 40-6.
- Revolutionary treatments for baldness: The hair re-growth formulas of Peter Proctor, M. D., Ph. D. Life Extension. 3(3): 2-8, 1997.
- Block, W. The science of keeping your skin young. Life Enhancement. January 1998; 15-18.
- Kirk, S., et al. Arginine stimulates wound healing and immune function in elderly human beings. Surgery. 114(2): 165-170, 1993.
- Barbul, A., et al. L-arginine: Supplemental arginine, wound healing, and thymus: arginine-pituitary interaction. Surgical Forum. 29:93, 1978.
- Yu, Y., et al. Kinetics of plasma arginine and leucine in pediatric burn patients. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition. 64(1): 60-66, 1996.
- Tepaske, R., et al. Effect of preoperative oral immune-enhancing nutritional supplement on patients at high risk of infection after cardiac surgery: a randomized placebo-controlled trial. Lancet. 2001 Sept 1; 358 (9283): 696-701.
- Braga, M., Gianotti, L., Raedelli, G., et al. Perioperative immunonutrition in patients undergoing cancer surgery: results of a randomized double-blind phase 3 trial. Arch Surg. 1999 Apr; 1 34(4): 428-33.
- Freedman, R., Girgis, R., Mayers, M. Acute effect of nitric oxide on Raynaud’s phenomenon in scleroderma. Lancet. 1999 Aug 28; 354; 739.
- Fideleff, H., et al. Reproducibility and safety of the arginine test in normal adults. Medicina (B Aires). 1999; 59(3): 249-53.
So, there you have it! Over the past few days some of the major scientific research into l-arginine and plenty to take in.
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